Overview: The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) was written in 1938, at a time when manufacturing and agriculture dominated the American economy. The law's structure for classifying employees as exempt or nonexempt from minimum wage and overtime requirements reflects that simpler time. Although it has been updated periodically in the decades since, the FLSA's classification scheme is often difficult to apply to more modern service- and information-related jobs.
One type of employee that has proven especially difficult to fit into the employee classification structure – and has also been the plaintiff in hundreds of lawsuits – is managers. Today's lean, flexible workplace often necessitates that managers pitch in and perform nonexempt work, rather than stand around with a clipboard in hand directing other employees. The more nonexempt work they do, the more likely it is they need to be paid overtime.
Complicating matters is the fact that employees' job duties change frequently. Employers often make the mistake of classifying all employees with a particular job title as exempt. When changes in the workplace necessitate changes in an employee's job duties, that classification can be jeopardized. HR is well-positioned to stay on top of these changes, and must remember that FLSA classification is an ongoing challenge, not a one-time task.
In addition, it's important that employers follow state requirements regarding employee classification.
Trends: FLSA regulations effective December 1, 2016, will raise the minimum salary for most FLSA overtime exemptions from $455 per week to $913 per week. The minimum salary level will be automatically adjusted every three years based on the 40th percentile level of full-time salaried workers in the lowest-wage Census region. In addition, the regulations will allow an employer to satisfy up to 10% of the salary minimum by nondiscretionary bonuses, incentives and commissions that are paid quarterly or more frequently.
Author: Michael Cardman, Legal Editor
Updated to include information on a Supreme Court of Connecticut ruling regarding the state ABC Test for independent contractor classification.
Updated to include municipal trends in protections for part-time employees, effective March 13, 2017.
For the time being, employers will no longer need to comply with the US Department of Labor's overtime rule, which had been scheduled to take effect December 1, 2016. However, there remains a possibility the rule could be resurrected.
Updated to reflect forthcoming independent contractor requirements under the New York City Freelance Isn't Free Act.
Updated to reflect the new salary basis rates for computer professionals, effective January 1, 2017.
Updated to reflect a new law invalidating the minimum wage and overtime exemption for domestic employees, effective January 1, 2017.
Updated to reflect changes to the minimum salary for exempt executive and administrative employees, effective December 31, 2016.
An employer may use this letter if it has decided to reverse changes in pay or classification that it previously implemented, pending the outcome of the legal challenges to the injunction blocking the US Department of Labor's overtime rule.
An employer may use this letter if it has decided to keep changes in pay or classification that were implemented, pending the outcome of the legal challenges to the injunction blocking the US Department of Labor's overtime rule.
An employer may use this letter if it has decided to delay implementing changes in pay or classification that we previously announced, pending the outcome of the legal challenges to the injunction blocking the US Department of Labor's overtime rule.
HR guidance on complying with the FLSA and state employee classification requirements. Support on following rules and regulations regarding this topic.