Overview: "They also serve who only stand and wait," the 17th Century poet John Milton wrote in one of his sonnets.
Recognizing this, the authors of a less poetic work, the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), held that employees must sometimes be paid for time they spend waiting or on call.
Employers must be careful that they don't create a minimum wage and/or overtime liability by requiring employers to stay on call or to wait to perform work.
In general, time that employees spend waiting or on call counts as hours worked if it is primarily for the benefit of the employer and its business. Many factors go into this determination. For example, employers can require employees to be accessible by phone or pager while they are on call, as long as they are otherwise free to use the time for their own purposes.
Making matters even more complicated for employers is the fact that there are also variations in state requirements for waiting time and on-call time.
Trends: In recent years, plaintiffs in lawsuits have invoked the FLSA's waiting time and on-call time regulations in making claims that certain activities that haven't traditionally been considered waiting time or on-call time - such as checking email or traveling in a company van - count as working time. They had hoped to apply the standard that compensable waiting time is primarily for the employer's benefit to these activities. Most of these arguments have been rejected, but HR should remain vigilant for the possibility that plaintiffs may eventually succeed in broadening the existing scope of these regulations.
Author: Michael Cardman, Legal Editor
Updated to reflect forthcoming working time provisions in the West Virginia Safer Workplace Act.
Updated to reflect a new law exempting domestic employees from the state's day of rest law, effective January 1, 2017.
Updated to reflect forthcoming working time requirements under the Seattle Secure Scheduling Ordinance.
Updated to reflect information on a federal appeals court's ruling that employers have an obligation to exercise 'reasonable diligence' to find out whether their employees are working off the clock.
Updated to refine the scope of coverage to include only breastfeeding break laws that apply to private employers.
In-depth review of the spectrum of Massachusetts employment law in respect to hours worked.
Employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) seeking to establish terms and procedures for on-call time should consider including this model policy statement in their handbook.
In-depth review of the spectrum of Minnesota employment law requirements HR must follow with respect to Hours Worked.
In-depth review of the spectrum of Connecticut employment law requirements HR must follow with respect to hours worked.
HR guidance on complying with the FLSA requirements for employee waiting time and on-call time.