Overview: Title VII as well as various state and local laws prohibit discrimination based on sex or gender. Accordingly, an employer should avoid making employment decisions based solely on gender as well as apply all workplace policies in a gender-neutral manner. This means that employers should use the same criteria to evaluate employee performance as well as provide both men and women with equal opportunity in hiring and advancement. Employers should develop a zero tolerance policy for gender discrimination and make sure to provide training to all employees and supervisors.
Further, employers should avoid engaging in unlawful sex stereotyping as well as treating men and women differently based on pregnancy, family and medical leave or caregiving responsibilities. Employers need to understand that the prohibition against sex discrimination not only applies to women, but also prohibits employee discrimination against men. It pertains to any discrimination that is based on an individual's gender and also prohibits sexual harassment.
Trends: Employers should be aware that the Pregnant Workers Fairness Act has been introduced in the US Congress. It would require employers to provide reasonable accommodations to pregnant women unless it would cause undue hardship for the employer. Further, under the Affordable Care Act, employers are already obligated to provide reasonable breaks for mothers to express milk for up to one year after the child's birth.
Employers should also know that the EEOC has been aggressively pursuing sex discrimination in the workplace. The EEOC has been extremely successful in bringing class action lawsuits based on sex discrimination and sexual harassment. Further, in the landmark case of Macy v. Holder, EEOC No. 0120120821, the EEOC held that claims of discrimination based on gender identity, change of sex, sex stereotyping, and transgender status constitute sex discrimination. Additionally, the EEOC remains committed to providing for equal pay in the workplace.
Author: Beth P. Zoller, JD, Legal Editor
This briefing for supervisors examines the law and best practices regarding preventing and responding to pregnancy discrimination in the workplace and managing pregnant employees and applicants.
To assist employers with the challenging issues of managing pregnant employees, a new Supervisor Briefing and Power Point Presentation on Pregnancy in the Workplace has been added.
The Supreme Court heard arguments December 3 in a pregnancy discrimination case that could have implications for millions of working women and their employers. In Young v. United Parcel Service, the Court is being asked to decide whether an employer that provides work accommodations to nonpregnant employees with work limitations must also do so for pregnant employees.
Employees affected by pregnancy, childbirth or related medical conditions must be provided accommodations such as a chair to sit on, uncompensated break time or modified work schedules.
Arkansas employers seeking to show their compliance with Arkansas' law requiring employers to provide unpaid break time and reasonable locations for employees to express breast milk should consider including this model policy statement in their handbook.
Delaware employers must provide reasonable accommodations to pregnant and nursing employees and job applicants under a new law enacted on September 9, 2014.
Philadelphia employers must now provide reasonable accommodations to nursing mothers under a new ordinance .
The amendment will centralize complaints and investigations by women who report gender discrimination in regards to salary and permit inter-agency referrals.
Starting January 1, 2015, Illinois employers will be required to provide pregnant employees reasonable accommodations such as longer bathroom breaks, specialized seating and even temporary transfer to a less-hazardous position.
As women make up over half of today's workforce, a significant number of employees and applicants are pregnant women as well as mothers returning to work after childbirth. As such, an employer faces multiple issues in managing pregnant employees.
HR Guidance on addressing sex discrimination in the workplace and ensuring equal opportunity for employees and applicants of both genders.