Overview: Title VII as well as various state and local laws prohibit discrimination based on sex or gender. Accordingly, an employer should avoid making employment decisions based solely on gender as well as apply all workplace policies in a gender-neutral manner. This means that employers should use the same criteria to evaluate employee performance as well as provide both men and women with equal opportunity in hiring and advancement. Employers should develop a zero tolerance policy for gender discrimination and make sure to provide training to all employees and supervisors.
Further, employers should avoid engaging in unlawful sex stereotyping as well as treating men and women differently based on pregnancy, family and medical leave or caregiving responsibilities. Employers need to understand that the prohibition against sex discrimination not only applies to women, but also prohibits employee discrimination against men. It pertains to any discrimination that is based on an individual's gender and also prohibits sexual harassment.
Trends: Employers should be aware that the Pregnant Workers Fairness Act has been introduced in the US Congress. It would require employers to provide reasonable accommodations to pregnant women unless it would cause undue hardship for the employer. Further, under the Affordable Care Act, employers are already obligated to provide reasonable breaks for mothers to express milk for up to one year after the child's birth.
Employers should also know that the EEOC has been aggressively pursuing sex discrimination in the workplace. The EEOC has been extremely successful in bringing class action lawsuits based on sex discrimination and sexual harassment. Further, in the landmark case of Macy v. Holder, EEOC No. 0120120821, the EEOC held that claims of discrimination based on gender identity, change of sex, sex stereotyping, and transgender status constitute sex discrimination. Additionally, the EEOC remains committed to providing for equal pay in the workplace.
Author: Beth P. Zoller, JD, Legal Editor
Updated to reflect forthcoming amendments to the Virginia Human Rights Act regarding lactation accommodations.
Updated to include forthcoming Virginia law regarding wage disclosure.
The topic of pay inequity has become commonplace in discussions about the workplace. In this survey report, XpertHR explores several aspects of this issue, including how common pay inequity is, who's affected, and HR's role in addressing pay inequities.
Updated threshold to include amendments expanding coverage of New York City Human Rights Law, effective January 11, 2020.
The 9th US Circuit Court of Appeals has ruled that prior salary history may not be used to justify paying women a lower salary than men.
In what marks the largest monetary agreement ever reached by the EEOC's Denver and Phoenix field offices, the Jackson National Life Insurance Company and its subsidiaries will pay nearly $21 million to settle a race and gender discrimination lawsuit.
HR Guidance on addressing sex discrimination in the workplace and ensuring equal opportunity for employees and applicants of both genders.