Overview: Discrimination is prohibited in all aspects of the selection process, including with an employer's initial job application form. As a result, employers should use the same application form for all applicants.
Questions about age, gender, race, religion, national origin or disability status should not be part of any application form. Certain inquiries that are not intended to discriminate may still have the effect of doing so such as asking candidates when they graduated from high school.
However, there are limited exceptions where employers may ask about these characteristics solely to track applicant flow for EEO/affirmative action purposes or if the information sought is truly job related and consistent with business necessity.
Trends: Several states and many of the nation's biggest cities have passed so-called "Ban the Box" measures that ban employers from asking candidates on an initial job application form if they have ever been convicted of a crime. While the majority of these laws are limited to public employers or city job applications, an increasing number of jurisdictions are enacting "ban the box" measures that extend to private employers.
The EEOC addressed this issue in 2012, and said employers should not make such inquiries because doing so may set up automatic barriers to the workforce to applicants who might be fully rehabilitated. However, an employer generally may seek criminal background information later in the process, even in states with Ban the Box laws.
On another note, the increased use of online applications has added a new wrinkle that raises additional legal questions. For instance, many employers use computer software to sort through these applications. Depending on the nature of the sorting software used, it may be viewed as a preemployment test subject to antidiscrimination laws if it has the effect of screening out certain classes of job applicants.
Author: David B. Weisenfeld, JD, Legal Editor
Updated to reflect forthcoming law restricting criminal inquiries regarding marijuana possession.
Updated to reflect forthcoming Suffolk County ban the box law.
Updated to reflect forthcoming Suffolk County, New York, ban the box law.
Updated to reflect forthcoming amendment regarding citizenship and immigration status.
Updated to reflect Cincinnati, Ohio ordinance regarding salary history inquiries, effective March 13, 2020.
Updated to reflect forthcoming amendment to law regarding requests for applicant Social Security Numbers.
The 3rd Circuit Court of Appeals' ruling may prove a bellwether for any legal challenges to the other state and local salary history inquiry bans across the nation.
Maryland has become the 14th state with a ban the box law affecting private employers after its legislature overrode Gov. Larry Hogan's veto. The City of St. Louis also will soon have a ban the box ordinance.
Updated to reflect amendment to law regarding expungement of criminal records, effective December 27, 2019.
HR guidance on legal considerations of job application forms.